Nutrition is very important for healthy living. Nutrition is the way in which you consume food or liquids, digest them and use them for health and growth. WHO is also very concerned about nutrition for children. Also, nutrition is a three-part process i.e. consumption, digestion and circulation of the food. Check out nutrition food chart or human body nutrition chart

Nutrition definition

Nutrition is the process in which you consume food or nourishing liquids, digest and absorb them and use them for health and growth.

Nutrients Synonym

Generally, food and nutrition are considered synonyms to each other which is improper. In fact food is a mixture of various substances which are essential for life whereas nutrition is a dynamic process in which body is made healthy by the consumption of food. So the synonyms of nutrients are fortified, dietary, dietetic.

Types of nutrients

On the basis of the amount of nutrients required by the human body they are classified in the following two categories.

  1. Macronutrients
  2. Micronutrients

Micronutrients Definition - Micronutrients are those nutrients that are required in small amount.

Micronutrients list

  1. Vitamins
  2. Vitamins are required by the body for its various metabolic processes and for the normal working of the body. Metabolic processes refer to the biological processes that a living organism uses to provide energy for sustaining life and growth.

    Most metabolic processes occur through a series of enzyme reactions that convert one substance into another for the storage or release of energy. Vitamins are the best sources of energy. They are required in very small amount. They are vital for the body.An individual may need very less amount of Vitamins everyday and it is in milligrams.


    Diseases caused by deficiency of vitamins

    1. scurvy
    2. Beriberi
    3. Rickets
    4. Pellagra etc.

    Different types of vitamins required by body

    1. Vitamin A
    2. Vitamin A is also called vitamin of growth. It is very important for children and lack of vitamin A can hinder the growth.

      Vitamin A Benefits

      1. It is essential for eyesight.
      2. This vitamin keeps the skin in good condition.

      Diseases caused by deficiency of vitamin A

      1. Lack of this vitamin in children causes prickles on hands and legs.
      2. One may catch cold and cough
      3. Formation of stones in urinary tract if there is a lack of vitamin A.

      Sources of Vitamin A

      1. Milk
      2. Egg yolk
      3. Cod liver oil
      4. Yellow vegetables
      5. Mango
      6. Papaya etc.

    3. Vitamin D
    4. Vitamin D helps to keep the teeth and bones strong, firm and in a right shape. It also helps in the utilization and absorption of calcium and phosphoric acid.

      Diseases caused by deficiency of vitamin D

      1. Lack of vitamin D causes rickets in children.
      2. Bones become weak and flexible.

      Sources of Vitamin D

      1. Vitamin D is present in egg specially in yolk
      2. Liver of sheep
      3. Cod liver oil
      4. Shark liver oil
      5. Pure milk etc.
      6. Natural source of vitamin D is sun rays specially early in the morning sunrise time.

      sources of vitamin D

    5. Vitamin E
    6. Vitamin E Benefits

      1. It keeps the sex organs in good conditions.
      2. It helps during pregnancy and helps in normal child birth.
      Lack of this vitamin can cause abortion.

      Sources of Vitamin E

      1. Vitamin E is present in wheat and wheat flour
      2. Leafy vegetables
      3. Carrot
      4. Cauliflower
      5. Lettuce
      6. cucumber
      7. Green pepper
      8. Spinach
      9. Milk
      10. Banana
      11. Butter etc.

    7. Vitamin K
    8. This vitamin is also known as anti bleeding vitamin. Lack of this vitamin causes inability of blood coagulate.

      Sources of Vitamin K

      1. salad leaves
      2. Cabbage
      3. Spinach
      4. Cauliflower
      5. Tomatoes
      6. Peas
      7. Carrot etc.

    9. Vitamin B Complex
    10. This vitamin is very useful for heart, nerves, normal elimination, good absorption and protection from deficiency diseases. It also helps in formation of red blood cells and provides stability of glands.

      Lack of vitamin B complex can cause Beriberi and it weakens the legs, muscles become loose. It also helps in growth.

      Sources of Vitamin B Complex

      1. Milk
      2. Wheat
      3. Grams
      4. Cashew nuts
      5. Peas yeast
      6. Meat
      7. Eggs
      8. Fish
      9. Rice
      10. Bajra
      11. Maize
      12. Soyabean
      13. Mutton
      14. Kesari Dal
      15. etc.

    11. Vitamin C
    12. It is most important for growth and regeneration. It activate enzymes and is useful for tissues. It is also useful for gums, keeps them healthy, Heal wounds, maintains red cells in blood and is good for teeth. Lack of Vitamin C effects the gums, can cause Scurvy, swelling in joints and bleeding in skin and mucus membrane etc.

      Sources of Vitamin C

      1. Turnip
      2. Papaya
      3. Leaves
      4. Amla
      5. Malta
      6. Orange
      7. lemon
      8. green chillies
      9. Strawberry
      10. Mausammi
      11. ber
      12. Mango
      13. Guava etc.


  3. Mineral Salts
  4. Mineral salts are called protective elements. These are very important for maintenance of the body. Some minerals are given below:

    1. Sodium
    2. Benefits of Sodium - It is needed for the proper functioning of nervous system. Its deficiency causes cramps and tiredness.

      Benefits of Sodium - It is present in common salt, vegetables and fruits.

    3. Calcium
    4. Benefits of Calcium - It makes bones and teeth strong. It maintains the blood pressure and helps to make blood clot at the time of bleeding. It helps other molecules to digest food and makes energy for body.

      Benefits of Calcium - It is present in milk, Orange, green leafy vegetables, egg etc.

    5. Phosphorus
    6. Benefits of Phosphorus - It is very important for the formation of tissues and cells in the body. It is very necessary for multiplication of blood cells and healthy growth of teeth, bones nervous system and blood serum lack of this can cause hindrance in growth weak bones etc.

      Sources of Phosphorus - It is present in cheese, egg special in yolk, potatoes, Almonds, nuts, wheat, milk and liver etc.

    7. Magnesium
    8. Benefits of Magnesium - It helps in proper growth, formation and functions of bones and muscles. It helps to prevent some heart disorders, high blood pressure, improvement of lung functioning, absorbing calcium and potassium. It prevents depression helps our brain to function normally and does it is very important element in our diet.

      Sources of Magnesium - It is present in whole grains, beans, meat etc.

    9. Potassium
    10. Benefits of Potassium - It helps to keep nervous system and Muscular System fit and active all the time. It also helps in maintaining the amount of water in blood and tissues.

      Sources of Potassium - It is present in green leafy vegetables, tomato, banana, peanut, citrus fruit etc.

    11. Sulphur
    12. Benefits of Sulphur - It is very important for the formation of brain, nails and hair. It also helps in digestion of food.

      Sources of Sulphur - It is present in cabbage, spinach, pulses, radish and eggs etc.

    13. Iron
    14. Benefits of Iron - Iron is the main salt which helps to constitutes blood and helps to produce hemoglobin. It acts as oxygen carrier to the lungs. Lack of iron can cause lack of blood or anaemia.

      Sources of Iron - It is present in liver, eggs, meat, onions, pulses, dates, figs, dry fruits and lettuce etc.


  5. Trace Elements

    1. Copper
    2. Benefits of Copper - It helps in formation of haemoglobin blood along with iron.

      Sources of Copper - It is present in spinach, dry fruits, meat, eggs etc.

    3. Iodine
    4. Benefits of Iodine - This element is required for keeping thyroid gland healthy. This gland uses iodine to make Chemicals that affect our growth and development.

      Sources of Iodine - It is present in iodized Salt, fish, sea foods etc.

    5. Chromium
    6. Benefits of Chromium - It stimulates insulin activity. Its deficiency may cause diabetes.

      Sources of Chromium - It is present in carrot, tomato, soyabean, groundnuts, black gram etc.

    7. Cobalt
    8. Benefits of Cobalt - It helps to protect us from anaemia.

      Sources of Cobalt - It is present in milk, meat, green leafy vegetables etc.

Nutrients and their functions table

WaterTo provide body fluid and to help regulate body temparature.
CarbohydratesAs fuel for energy for body heat and work.
FatsAs fuel for energy and essential fatty acids.
ProteinsFor growth and repair.
MineralsFor developing body tissues and for metabolic processes and protection.
VitaminsFor metabolic processes and protection.
Indigestible and unabsorbable particles, including fibre To form a vehicle for other nutrients, add bulk to the diet, provide a habitat for bacterial flora and assist proper elimination of refuse.

Nutrition summary

So, we can say that all living beings need proper nutrition for maintaining energy in the body for doing work. The food which we eat is known as 'diet'. The energetic food in our diet consist of various types of essential chemicals for our body termed as 'nutrients'. An athlete should take balanced food (proper nutrition), which has all the essential nutrients like proteins, minerals, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins etc. We need food (proper nutrition) not only to get the supply of energy, but for the growth and compensation of body also. The broken cells of the body are repaired by the food which we take. Food is also necessary for the formation of new cells. It also regulates the various activities of the body.

Also Read

Anorexia Nervosa
postural deformities
food supplements
Yoga asanas
injuries and their treatment

Information about health concerned organisations in the World

1Canadian Diabetes Association
2World Bank
3Save the Children
4Medical Teams International
5Fig Tree Foundation 
6World Health Organization
7UN Aids

NGO in India

Here is the list of some NGOs in India
1Smile Foundation
2Save the children
3Give India
4Care India
5Uday Foundation
6Help age India
7Plan India


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  1. Very nicely explained and informative content. Various sources of different tyes vitamins are explained very neatly. I think all the information about micronutrients have been covered here. Really appreciate your work. Keep it up.

  2. I love learning about what vitamins and nutrients I need in my diet- this is a great post!

    Le Stylo Rouge

  3. Thanks for sharing all that information about vitamins.

  4. I'm so bad getting to know all nutrients and vitamines... so thanks for this post!



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